Over.ing Addiction To Nicotine-瀬名アスカ

Addictions Unlike most drugs, the undesirable health effects of nicotine are only long-term. Even so, the overall cost of nicotine addiction to smokers and to the .munity is huge! Statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that tobacco use remains the foremost preventable cause of premature death in the United States, causing approximately 440,000 premature fatalities each year and resulting in an annual cost of more than $75 billion in direct medical costs as a result of smoking. Over the past forty years, cigarette smoking has caused a projected 12 million deaths, including 4.1 million deaths from cancer, 5.5 million fatalities from cardiovascular disease, 2.1 million deaths from respiratory disease, and 94,000 infant deaths related to pregnant women smoking during pregnancy. Second-hand smoke, also identified as environmental tobacco smoke, is a mixture of the smoke given off by the burning end of tobacco products (side stream smoke) and the ordinary smoke breathed out by smokers. It is a .plex mixture which contains many chemicals (including formaldehyde, cyanide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, nicotine and other poisons), many of which are known to be carcinogenic. Non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke at home or work increase their risk of developing cardio-vascular disease by 25 to 30 percent and lung cancer by 20 to 30 percent. Additionally, secondhand smoke causes lung .plications in non-smokers such as coughing, catarrh, and reduced lung functionality. Children exposed to secondhand smoke are at an increased risk for sudden infant death syndrome, severe lung illness, ear .plications, and more serious asthma. Since 1964, 28 Surgeon General’s reports on smoking and health have determined that tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of disease, incapacity, and death in the United States. In 1988, the Surgeon General concluded that cigarettes and other types of tobacco, such as cigars, pipe tobacco, and chewing tobacco, are habit-forming and that nicotine is the drug in tobacco that causes addiction. Nicotine gives an almost immediate "kick" because it causes a discharge of epinephrine from the adrenal cortex. This stirs up the central nervous system and endocrine glands, which causes a sudden discharge of blood sugar. Stimulation is then followed by depression and lethargy, leading the user to seek more nicotine. Nicotine is absorbed quickly from tobacco smoke in the lungs, and it does not matter whether the tobacco smoke is from cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. Nicotine also is absorbed immediately when tobacco is chewed. With regular use of tobacco, levels of nicotine accumulate in the body during the day and persist during sleep. Thus, daily smokers or chewers are exposed to the effects of nicotine for 24 hours each day. Addiction to nicotine end results in withdrawal problems when a person attempts to stop smoking. For example, a study found that when chronic smokers were deprived of cigarettes for 24 hours, they had increased annoyance, hostility, and aggression, and loss of social cooperation. Persons suffering from withdrawal also take longer to reclaim emotional stability following stress. During times of abstinence and/or cravings, smokers have shown deficiencies across a wide array of psychomotor and cognitive functions, such as language .prehension. Adult females who smoke generally have early menopause. Pregnant women who smoke cigarettes run an increased risk of giving birth to stillborn or premature babies or infants with low natal mass. Children of females who smoked while expecting have an increased risk for developing conduct disorders. National research of mothers and daughters have also found that maternal smoking during pregnancy increased the likelihood that feminine children would smoke and would persist in smoking. In addition to nicotine, cigarette and cigar smoke is primarily .posed of a dozen gases (largely carbon monoxide) and tar. The tar in a cigarette, which varies from around 15 mg for a normal strength cigarette to 7 mg in a low-tar cigarette, exposes the user to an increased risk of lung cancer, emphysema, and bronchial disorders. The carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke increases the likelihood of heart disease. The Environmental Protection Agency has resolved that secondhand smoke causes lung cancer in adults and seriously raises the risk of respiratory problems in children, along with sudden infant death. Research has shown that nicotine, like cocaine, heroin, and marijuana, elevates the level of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which affects the cerebral pathways that regulate reward and gratification. Scientists have isolated a particular molecule – the beta 2 (b2) sub-unit of the nicotine cholinergic receptor – as a critical .ponent in nicotine addiction. Mice that lack this subunit fail to self-administer nicotine, suggesting that without the b2 subunit, the mice do not undergo the positive reinforcing properties of nicotine. This finding identifies a likely site for targeting the growth of nicotine addiction medications. Other research found that smokers have superior opposition to nicotine addiction if they have a genetic variant that decreases the function of the enzyme CYP2A6. The reduction in CYP2A6 slows the breakdown of nicotine and protects individuals against nicotine addiction. Understanding the role of this enzyme in nicotine addiction gives a new target for contracting more useful treatment to help individuals stop smoking. Medications may be developed that can inhibit the functionality of CYP2A6, thus providing a new approach to preventing and treating nicotine addiction. Another study found dramatic changes in the brain’s satisfaction circuits during withdrawal from chronic tobacco use. These changes are .parable in size and length to similar changes documented during withdrawal from other addictive drugs such as cocaine, opiates, amphetamines, and alcohol. Scientists found major decreases in the sensitivity of the mental ability of laboratory rats to satisfying stimulation after nicotine administration was suddenly stopped. These changes lasted several days and may correspond to the anxiety and melancholy undergone by humans for several days after quitting smoking "cold turkey." The end results of this research may help in the evolution of better treatments for the withdrawal symptoms that may stand in the way of individuals’ efforts to quit. About the Author: 相关的主题文章: